What is March 23 Movement ? M23 Movement

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May 29, 2024

What is March 23 Movement ? M23 Movement

The March 23 Movement, often abbreviated as M23, is a Congolese rebel military group operating primarily in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) North Kivu province, bordering Rwanda and Uganda.:


  • Emerged in 2012, formed by defecting soldiers from the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP) after a failed integration process with the DRC’s armed forces (FARDC).
  • Primarily composed of ethnic Tutsi, who claim grievances related to violence and marginalization.


  • Engaged in armed conflict with the DRC government, most notably during the 2012-2013 M23 rebellion, which displaced a significant number of people.
  • Resurfaced in late 2021 and has since clashed with FARDC and other armed groups in North Kivu, causing further displacement.
  • Accused of human rights abuses by various human rights organizations.


  • Current military leader: General Sultani Makenga
  • Previous president: Bertrand Bisimwa (position may have changed)


  • The Rwandan government has been accused of backing the M23, which Rwanda denies.
  • The conflict in North Kivu is complex, with various actors and motivations involved.


  • The M23’s activities contribute to ongoing instability and violence in the eastern DRC, hindering development efforts and causing a humanitarian crisis.

Current Situation (as of May 29, 2024):

  • The M23 has clashed with FARDC in recent months, raising concerns about a potential escalation of the conflict.
  • Regional and international efforts are ongoing to find a peaceful resolution to the conflict in North Kivu.


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What is March 23 Movement ? M23 Movement | Vaid ICS Institute