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Sociology optional is a popular optional subject in civil services examination. Many students have cleared UPSC civil services examination with sociology optional. It can fetch 315 to 350 marks in UPSC mains examination. It is helpful even at the time of UPSC civil services interview as well as post selection field work. So choosing right optional is very important to find your name in final UPSC selection list.

Course Duration

6 Months


English & Hindi

Study Material

Class Notes


Course Information

Sectional Test

Total number of 24 Sectional Test of both Paper-1 & Paper-2.

Full Length Test

Total number of 8 Full Length Test of both Paper-1 & Paper-2.

Evaluated Test

Evaluated test copy will be sent back to the students within 14 days after receiving the answer sheet.

Dedicated Support

Dedicated support for improving answer writing skills through evaluation of descriptive answers with improvement suggestions.


Personalized mentoring sessions.


Focus on conceptual clarity and current based approach.

Current Affairs, Latest Studies and Reports

Answers in UPSC Sociology optional papers are greatly enriched by incorporating examples from the current affairs, data from government reports and latest sociological studies. All these are shared with the students during the lectures.

Full Syllabus Coverage

Course includes detailed discussions on all topics of the Sociology Optional UPSC CSE syllabus. It is ensured that no syllabus topic/portion is left untouched or covered in a hurry or partially. Each and every topic in UPSC Sociology syllabus is covered in detail by Sir in the lectures.

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  1. Sociology – The Discipline:

(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
(c) Sociology and common sense.

  1. Sociology as Science:

(a) Science, scientific method and critique.
(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
(c) Positivism and its critique.
(d) Fact value and objectivity.
(e) Non- positivist methodologies.

  1. Research Methods and Analysis:

(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
(b) Techniques of data collection.
(c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

  1. Sociological Thinkers:

(a) Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
(b) Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
(c) Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
(d) Talcolt Parsons-Social system, pattern variables.
(e) Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and  deviance, reference groups
(f) Mead   – Self and identity.

  1. Stratification and Mobility:

(a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and  deprivation
(b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
(c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity     and race.
(d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

6. Works and Economic Life:

(a) Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society,  feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
(b)  Formal and informal organization of work
(c)  Labour and society.

7. Politics and Society:

(a)  Sociological theories of power
(b)  Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
(c)   Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
(d)   Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

8. Religion and Society:

(a)   Sociological theories of religion.
(b)   Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

9. Systems of Kinship:

(a)   Family, household, marriage.
(b)   Types and forms of family.
(c)   Lineage and descent
(d)   Patriarchy and sexual division of labour
(e)   Contemporary trends.

10. Social Change in Modern Society:

(a)   Sociological theories of social change.
(b)   Development and dependency.
(c)   Agents of social change.
(d)   Education and social change.
(e)   Science, technology and social change.

  1. समाजशास्त्र – अनुशासन:
    (ए) यूरोप में आधुनिकता और सामाजिक परिवर्तन और समाजशास्त्र के उद्भव।
    (बी) विषय के दायरे और अन्य सामाजिक विज्ञान के साथ तुलना।
    (सी) समाजशास्त्र और सामान्य ज्ञान।
  2. विज्ञान के रूप में समाजशास्त्र:
    (ए) विज्ञान, वैज्ञानिक पद्धति और आलोचना
    (बी) अनुसंधान पद्धति के प्रमुख सैद्धांतिक किस्में
    (सी) पॉज़िटिविज्म और इसकी आलोचना
    (डी) तथ्य मूल्य और निष्पक्षता।
    (ई) गैर-सकारात्मकवादी पद्धतियां।
  3. अनुसंधान के तरीके और विश्लेषण:
    (ए) गुणात्मक और मात्रात्मक तरीके
    (बी) डेटा संग्रह की तकनीकें।
    (सी) चर, नमूना, परिकल्पना, विश्वसनीयता और वैधता।
  4. सामाजिक विचारक:
    (ए) कार्ल मार्क्स- ऐतिहासिक भौतिकवाद, उत्पादन का तरीका, अलगाव, वर्ग संघर्ष।
    (बी) एमिल डर्कहेम- श्रम, सामाजिक तथ्य, आत्महत्या, धर्म और समाज का विभाजन।
    (सी) मैक्स वेबर- सामाजिक कार्य, आदर्श प्रकार, प्राधिकरण, नौकरशाही, विरोधवादी नैतिकता और पूंजीवाद की भावना।
    (डी) टैल्कट पार्सन्स- सोशल सिस्टम, पैटर्न वैरिएबल।
    (ई) रॉबर्ट के। मेर्टन- लेटेंट और मेनिफेस्ट फ़ंक्शंस, अनुरूपता और विचलन, संदर्भ समूह।
    (एफ) मीड – आत्म और पहचान।
  5. स्तरीकरण और गतिशीलता:
    (ए) अवधारणाओं – समानता, असमानता, पदानुक्रम, बहिष्कार, गरीबी और वंचितता।
    (बी) सामाजिक वर्गीकरण की सिद्धांत- संरचनात्मक कार्यात्मक सिद्धांत, मार्क्सवादी सिद्धांत, वेबरियन सिद्धांत।
    (सी) आयाम – वर्ग, स्थिति समूह, लिंग, जातीयता और जाति का सामाजिक वर्गीकरण।
    (डी) सामाजिक गतिशीलता – खुली और बंद प्रणाली, गतिशीलता के प्रकार, स्रोत और गतिशीलता के कारण।
  6. कार्य और आर्थिक जीवन:
    (ए) विभिन्न प्रकार के समाज में काम का सामाजिक संगठन- दास समाज, सामंती समाज, औद्योगिक / पूंजीवादी समाज।
    (बी) काम के औपचारिक और अनौपचारिक संगठन
    (सी) श्रम और समाज।
  7. राजनीति और समाज:
    (ए) शक्ति के सामाजिक सिद्धांत
    (बी) पावर एलिट, नौकरशाही, दबाव समूह, और राजनीतिक दलों।
    (सी) राष्ट्र, राज्य, नागरिकता, लोकतंत्र, नागरिक समाज, विचारधारा।
    (डी) विरोध, आंदोलन, सामाजिक आंदोलन, सामूहिक कार्रवाई, क्रांति।
  8. धर्म और समाज:
    (ए) धर्म के सामाजिक सिद्धांतों
    (बी) धार्मिक प्रथाओं के प्रकार: एनिमिसम, मोनिज्म, बहुलवाद, संप्रदायों, संप्रदायों।
    (सी) आधुनिक समाज में धर्म: धर्म और विज्ञान, धर्मनिरपेक्षता, धार्मिक पुनरुत्थान, कट्टरतावाद।
  9. Kinship की प्रणाली:
    (ए) परिवार, घर, शादी।
    (बी) परिवार के प्रकार और रूप।
    (सी) वंशावली और वंश।
    (डी) पितृसत्ता और श्रम के यौन विभाजन।
    (ई) समकालीन रुझान।
  10. आधुनिक समाज में सामाजिक परिवर्तन:
    (ए) सामाजिक परिवर्तन के सामाजिक सिद्धांत।
    (बी) विकास और निर्भरता
    (सी) सामाजिक परिवर्तन के एजेंट।
    (डी) शिक्षा और सामाजिक परिवर्तन
    (ई) विज्ञान, प्रौद्योगिकी और सामाजिक परिवर्तन।

A. Introducing Indian Society:

(i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society:

(a) Indology  (GS. Ghurye).
(b) Structural functionalism  (M N Srinivas).
(c) Marxist sociology  ( A R Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

(a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
(b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
(d) Social reforms

B. Social Structure:

(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies-
(b) Agrarian social structure –
evolution of land tenure system,  land reforms.

(ii) Caste System:

(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
(b) Features of caste system.
(c) Untouchability – forms and perspectives

(iii) Tribal communities in India:

(a) Definitional problems.
(b) Geographical spread.
(c) Colonial policies and tribes.
(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India:

(a) Agrarian class structure.
(b) Industrial class structure.
(c) Middle classes in India.

(v) Systems of Kinship in India:

(a) Lineage and descent in India.
(b) Types of kinship systems.
(c) Family and marriage in India.
(d) Household dimensions of the family.
(e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.

(vi) Religion and Society:

(a) Religious communities in India.
(b) Problems of religious minorities.

C. Social Changes in India:

(i) Visions of Social Change in India:

(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
(b) Constitution, law and social change.
(c) Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
(b) Green revolution and social change.
(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

(a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
(d) Informal sector, child labour
(e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society:

(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
(b) Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.
(c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
(d) Secularization

(v) Social Movements in Modern India:

(a) Peasants and farmers movements.
(b) Women’s movement.
(c) Backward classes & Dalit movement.
(d) Environmental movements.
(e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vi) Population Dynamics:

(a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
(b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
(c) Population policy and family planning.
(d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:

(a)  Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
(c) Violence against women.
(d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.


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