The Houthis’ Involvement in the Israel-Hamas Conflict and the Escalation in Yemen

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January 13, 2024

The Houthis’ Involvement in the Israel-Hamas Conflict and the Escalation in Yemen


  • Recent events have witnessed heightened tensions in the Middle East, with the United States and the United Kingdom launching strikes on Houthi targets in Yemen. This military action comes in response to the Houthi militant group’s attacks on international maritime vessels in the Red Sea, exacerbating an already complex situation in the region. This article explores the reasons behind the conflict, the involvement of the Houthis, and the potential implications for the Middle East.

The Houthi Attacks and the Israel-Hamas War

  • The Houthis, a Shia militant group engaged in the Yemeni civil war, have targeted ships in the Red Sea to protest Israeli military actions in Gaza. The conflict escalated after Hamas, a Sunni Palestinian militant group, launched an attack against Israel, resulting in a heavy Israeli retaliation. The persistent Israeli bombardment of Gaza, causing significant civilian casualties, triggered global concerns and drew the Houthis into the fray.

International Response and Strikes on Houthi Positions

  • On January 11, the US and the UK launched strikes on Houthi positions, supported by Australia, Bahrain, Canada, and the Netherlands. The strikes aimed to counter the Houthi threat to freedom of navigation in the Red Sea, a vital waterway for global trade. President Joe Biden cited the unprecedented nature of Houthi attacks, including the use of anti-ship ballistic missiles, as a direct justification for the military action.

Significance of the Red Sea and Suez Canal

  • The Red Sea and the Suez Canal, through which around 12 percent of the world’s trade passes, hold immense economic importance. Concerns over the safety of vessels navigating this route have led to shipping companies pausing movement, impacting global trade. The longer route around the Cape of Good Hope increases costs and poses logistical challenges.

Understanding the Houthis and Their Motivations

  • The Houthis, with a decade-long involvement in the Yemeni civil war, are backed by Iran and are Shia. Despite being aligned with the Shia regime in Tehran, they find common cause with Sunni Hamas due to shared opposition to the US and Israel. This alliance reflects broader regional rivalries and adds complexity to the Israel-Hamas conflict.

Regional Concerns and Escalation Risks

  • The US-led strikes against the Houthis raise concerns about a wider conflict in the Middle East. While Operation Prosperity Guardian aims at maritime security, the reluctance of some partner countries to commit large military assets suggests apprehension about unpredictable outcomes. The Houthis’ vow to respond and the varied international reactions underscore the potential for further escalation.


  • As the situation unfolds, the repercussions of the recent strikes on Houthi targets remain uncertain. The involvement of various actors in the region, including Iran, the US, and regional powers, adds layers of complexity to an already intricate geopolitical landscape. The Yemeni peace negotiations face uncertainties, and the international community watches closely as the Middle East navigates through a challenging period of heightened tensions.

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The Houthis’ Involvement in the Israel-Hamas Conflict and the Escalation in Yemen | Vaid ICS Institute