India’s 4 P Model: People and the Planet

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April 19, 2024

India’s 4 P Model: People and the Planet

Why in News ? The World Bank has come up with  the new vision of “a world free of poverty on a livable planet”.

  • In this slogan , it is important to learn from India’s 4Ps (Delhi declaration) since they are directly relevant to the successful implementation of large-scale transformational programmes.

·         In ensuring that no country should have to choose between fighting poverty and fighting for the planet, India’s 4 P model can be adopted.

What is India’s 4  P Model ?


The first P (political leadership) :

·   It is perhaps the fulcrum of driving change and impact on the ground.

·  India’s SBM  restored dignity, health and security to communities, especially women and girls.

· The declaration of the goal to achieve a clean India was followed by the creation of institutional and financing mechanisms to implement this massive programme in a federal context.

·         The PM also closely monitored the progress of the SBM on the ground, including by the use of technology.

The second P (public financing):

·         It is a direct follow-up to the first, through a high-level policy decision to finance the implementation of sanitation across the country.

·  In a context where scarce public resources had to be deployed for national developmental priorities, it took a discerning leadership to appreciate that investment in sanitation influenced both poverty reduction and led to an improvement in the quality of life for India’s population.

The third P (partnerships):

·  It was also very important. The SBM was never implemented as a sarkari programme but in partnership with international bodies such as the World Bank, Unicef, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations, state and district administrations, local bodies, panchayats, school children across the country.

·   The fourth P (people’s participation) became the hallmark of the SBM, which had captured the imagination of the nation.

·    Each of the six lakh villages in India decided to take it upon itself to become open defecation free.

·   Rural communities took matters into their own hands and engaged in mass movements to encourage all households to build toilets and use them.

·  Unless communities took matters into their own hands and owned and implemented it, the outcomes would not stick.



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India’s 4 P Model: People and the Planet | Vaid ICS Institute