Global Biodiversity Framework Fund: A Paradigm Shift in Conservation Financing

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November 28, 2023

Global Biodiversity Framework Fund: A Paradigm Shift in Conservation Financing

IUCN welcomes the new Global Biodiversity Framework and 30% ambitions -  Story | IUCN

GBFF Inception and Integration

  • August 27, 2023, marked a pivotal moment in biodiversity conservation with the establishment of the Global Biodiversity Framework Fund (GBFF) during the 7th Assembly of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in Vancouver, Canada. Aligned with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF), ratified at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, the GBFF aims to support nations in realizing the 23 outlined targets.

Evolution of Financial Support

  • Since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, financial backing for biodiversity conservation has been a persistent challenge. Despite milestones like the GEF’s involvement as the financial mechanism for the Convention, funding remained inadequate. For instance, COP15 highlighted the necessity for at least $200 billion annually until 2030, a substantial leap from earlier allocations:
  • GEF’s progress from $1 billion in 1990 to $4.43 billion in 2014 reflects an increased focus on biodiversity. However, this still fell short of addressing the escalating crisis outlined in the 2019 IPBES report, citing the risk of 1 million species facing extinction.

Distinctive Aspects of GBFF

The GBFF introduces a transformative approach to funding conservation efforts:

  • Diverse Funding Sources: Unlike its predecessors, the GBFF diversifies its funding sources, integrating private, philanthropic, and governmental investments for a more sustainable financial pool.
  • GEF’s Role and Budget Allocation: Managed by GEF, the GBFF boasts a $5.25 billion cumulative budget for 2022-26, allocating 36% specifically to biodiversity while directing the rest toward critical projects encompassing climate change, pollution, land, and ocean health.

Challenges and Future Endeavors

Despite this breakthrough, challenges persist:

  • Funding Disparity: A significant gap remains between current funding and the required amounts, raising concerns about the viability of long-term sustainability.
  • Domestic Funding Struggles: Developing nations, in particular, face hurdles in relying on domestic funds for conservation, amplifying the need for comprehensive solutions.

Path Forward

  • To navigate these challenges, KMGBF targets suggest various nature-based solutions, including fostering domestic funding mechanisms and exploring biodiversity credits akin to carbon credits. Protecting indigenous rights and capacity-building initiatives are also integral components in achieving these goals.


  • The establishment of the GBFF signifies a monumental stride in addressing biodiversity conservation’s financial conundrum. However, the journey ahead necessitates not only substantial funding but also equitable and sustainable conservation practices to safeguard our planet’s biodiversity.

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Global Biodiversity Framework Fund: A Paradigm Shift in Conservation Financing | Vaid ICS Institute