What is Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)?

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May 6, 2024

What is Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)?

Why in News?Sam Altman, CEO of OpenAI, has recently expressed his commitment to invest billions of dollars towards the development of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI).
What is AGI?
•AGI is a kind of machine or a software that can perform any intellectual task that a human can do.
•It can do reasoning, common sense, abstract thinking, background knowledge, transfer learning, ability to differentiate between cause and effect, etc.
•AGI aims to emulate human cognitive abilities such that it allows it to do unfamiliar tasks, learn from new experiences, and apply its knowledge in new ways.
How it will Work?
•Humans learn through their experiences — in school, home, or elsewhere; by talking to people or observing things; by reading books, watching television, reading articles, etc. The human brain then uses the information it has gathered to make decisions (often subconscious) that solve any given problem, or come up with a new one.

•With AGI, researchers aim to build a software or computer that can do all this — everything that a human computer does. Think of having a super intelligent robot friend who can understand everything you say, learn new things just the way you do, and even think of problems to find solutions.
How is AGI different from AI we already use?
• The main difference between AGI and the more common form of AI, also known as narrow AI, lies in their scope and capabilities.

•Narrow AI is designed to perform specific tasks such as image recognition, translation, or even playing games like chess—at which it can outdo humans, but it remains limited to its set parameters. On the other hand, AGI envisions a broader, more generalised form of intelligence, not confined to any particular task (like humans).

Is this a new idea?
• No. The idea of AGI first emerged in the 20th century with a paper written by Alan Turing, widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.

In ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ (1950), he introduced what is now known as the Turing test, a benchmark for machine intelligence. Simply put, if a machine can engage in a conversation with a human without being detected as a machine, according to the Turing test, it has demonstrated human intelligence.

When Turing wrote this influential paper, humans were nowhere close to developing artificial intelligence — even computers were in their nascency. Yet, his work led to wide-ranging discussions about the possibility of such machines, as well as their potential benefits and risks.

How can AGI help humanity?
•In theory, AGI has innumerable positive implications. For instance, in healthcare, it can redefine diagnostics, treatment planning, and personalised medicine by integrating and analysing vast datasets, far beyond the capabilities of humans.

•In finance and business, AGI could automate various processes and enhance the overall decision-making, offering real-time analytics and market predictions with accuracy.

  • Types of Artificial Intelligence:
    . Weak AI or Narrow AI:
    Narrow AI is a type of AI which is able to perform a dedicated task with intelligence.The most common and currently available AI is Narrow AI in the world of Artificial Intelligence.
    Narrow AI cannot perform beyond its field or limitations, as it is only trained for one specific task. Hence it is also termed as weak AI. Narrow AI can fail in unpredictable ways if it goes beyond its limits.
    Apple Siriis a good example of Narrow AI, but it operates with a limited pre-defined range of functions.
    IBM’s Watson supercomputer also comes under Narrow AI, as it uses an Expert system approach combined with Machine learning and natural language processing.
    Some Examples of Narrow AI are playing chess, purchasing suggestions on e-commerce site, self-driving cars, speech recognition, and image recognition.
    2. General AI:
    General AI is a type of intelligence which could perform any intellectual task with efficiency like a human.
    The idea behind the general AI to make such a system which could be smarter and think like a human by its own.
    Currently, there is no such system exist which could come under general AI and can perform any task as perfect as a human.
    The worldwide researchers are now focused on developing machines with General AI.
    oAs systems with general AI are still under research, and it will take lots of efforts and time to develop such systems.
    3. Super AI:
    Super AI is a level of Intelligence of Systems at which machines could surpass human intelligence, and can perform any task better than human with cognitive properties. It is an outcome of general AI.
    Some key characteristics of strong AI include capability include the ability to think, to reason,solve the puzzle, make judgments, plan, learn, and communicate by its own.
    Super AI is still a hypothetical concept of Artificial Intelligence. Development of such systems in real is still world changing task.
    Artificial Intelligence type-2: Based on functionality
    1. Reactive Machines
    Purely reactive machines are the most basic types of Artificial Intelligence.
    AI systems do not store memories or past experiences for future actions.
    These machines only focus on current scenarios and react on it as per possible best action.
    IBM’s Deep Blue system is an example of reactive machines.
    Google’s AlphaGo is also an example of reactive machines.
    2. Limited Memory
    Limited memory machines can store past experiences or some data for a short period of time.
    These machines can use stored data for a limited time period only.
    Self-driving cars are one of the best examples of Limited Memory systems. These cars can store recent speed of nearby cars, the distance of other cars, speed limit, and other information to navigate the road.
    3. Theory of Mind
    Theory of Mind AI should understand the human emotions, people, beliefs, and be able to interact socially like humans.
    This type of AI machines are still not developed, but researchers are making lots of efforts and improvement for developing such AI machines.
    4. Self-Awareness
    Self-awareness AI is the future of Artificial Intelligence. These machines will be super intelligent, and will have their own consciousness, sentiments, and self-awareness.
    These machines will be smarter than human mind.
    Self-Awareness AI does not exist in reality still and it is a hypothetical concept.

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What is Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)? | Vaid ICS Institute