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May 17, 2024

Guardianship under the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956

The Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956 (HMGA) establishes the legal framework for guardianship of minor children in India. It defines a guardian as an individual responsible for the care, welfare, and property of a minor (someone below 18 years old) until they reach adulthood.

Types of Guardians:

The HMGA recognizes three main types of guardians:

  1. Natural Guardian: This is the primary guardian, typically the father followed by the mother for a legitimate child (born to married parents) and the mother for an illegitimate child.
  2. Testamentary Guardian: A parent can appoint a guardian through a will to take over after their death.
  3. Court-appointed Guardian: If there’s no natural or testamentary guardian, or if their appointment is deemed unfit, the court can appoint a guardian.

Role and Powers of a Guardian:

The guardian’s primary responsibility is to act in the best interests of the minor. Their powers and duties encompass various aspects:

  • Person: Ensuring the minor’s physical and emotional well-being, including education, healthcare, and upbringing.
  • Property: Managing the minor’s property responsibly, including making investments and handling finances. However, the guardian cannot sell immovable property (land or buildings) without court permission (Section 8(2)).

Protecting the Minor’s Interests:

The HMGA equips guardians with legal tools to safeguard the minor’s interests:

  • Representation: Representing the minor in legal proceedings and signing documents on their behalf.
  • Decision-making: Making decisions related to the minor’s education, healthcare, and residence, while considering their well-being and wishes as they mature.


Consider a scenario where a minor child loses both parents in an accident. The child’s paternal uncle is appointed as the guardian by the court. The uncle’s role would be to:

  • Ensure the child’s emotional and physical well-being by providing a safe and loving home.
  • Enroll the child in school and make decisions regarding their education.
  • Manage any inheritance or property the child receives, using it for their benefit but following legal restrictions on selling immovable assets.

Case Law Example:

In the landmark case of Gita Mittal vs. Commissioner of Income Tax (1988), the Supreme Court emphasized the guardian’s responsibility to manage the minor’s property prudently. The court ruled that a guardian who incurs unnecessary expenses or makes risky investments that lead to losses can be held personally liable.

Important Sections :

  • Section 4: Defines key terms like “minor” (someone under 18) and “guardian” (responsible for a minor’s person or property).

  • Section 6: Establishes the order of natural guardians: father followed by mother for legitimate children, and mother for illegitimate children.

  • Section 7: Deals with guardianship of adopted children, specifying the adoptive mother and father as natural guardians.

  • Section 8: Defines the powers of a natural guardian regarding the minor’s person and property (excluding undivided interest in joint family property). It also restricts the sale of immovable property by a guardian without court permission.

  • Section 9: Enables parents to appoint a testamentary guardian through a will, specifying their powers regarding the minor’s person or property.

  • Section 12: Prohibits appointing a guardian for a minor’s undivided interest in joint family property.

  • Section 13: Emphasizes the paramount consideration of the minor’s welfare when appointing or removing a guardian. The court can intervene if the guardian’s actions are not in the child’s best interests.

  • Section 25: Outlines the procedure for appointing a guardian by the court if there’s no natural or testamentary guardian.


Guardianship under the HMGA plays a vital role in protecting the well-being and future of minor children in India. By understanding the types of guardians, their powers, and the legal framework, guardians can effectively fulfill their responsibilities and ensure the minor thrives under their care.

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