Daily Current Affairs – 2020
Topic: For Prelims and Mains
World Habitat Day
Why in News?
- The United Nations has been designated as the World Habitat Day on the first Monday of October every year by the United Nations to reflect the status of cities and towns and the fundamental right to adequate shelter.
- There is a situation of housing crisis globally.
- Around 1.6 billion people worldwide are living in substandard housing and about 100 million are homeless.
- This indicates that some serious actions are urgent otherwise the number of slum dwellers throughout the world will continue to increase and the situation will become even more worrisome.
What is Agenda 2030?
It should be noted that at the 70th meeting of the United Nations General Assembly starting in the year 2015, the sustainable development goals-SDGs were set for the next 15 years.
It is noteworthy that the plan to achieve millennium development goals-MDG for the period 2000-2015 was planned, which was completed in the year 2015.
Subsequently, a new agenda for the coming years (SDG-2030) was formally adopted by all member nations. Before talking about the Sustainable Development Goals, it would also be important to know what the Millennium Development Goals were?
Millennium development goals-MDG
- To end hunger and poverty.
- Achieving universal primary education.
- To promote gender equality and women empowerment.
- Decreasing infant mortality.
- Promoting maternal health.
- Getting rid of HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
- Environmental Sustainability.
- To establish a relationship for global development.
Significantly, India has achieved the targets set by 2015 in HIV / AIDS, poverty, universal education and infant mortality among the targeted targets. While India is still far behind in achieving other goals. However, the Millennium Development Goals have been included within the goals contained in the Agenda 2030.
Sustainable development goals-SDG:
The resolution of ‘Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’, also known as the Sustainable Development Goals.
It was accepted by 193 countries including India at a high level plenary meeting of the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015 and implemented on 1 January 2016.
Under this, 17 targets and 169 targets were set which are to be achieved in the period 2016-2030. It is noteworthy that 8 of these goals have been taken from the Millennium Development Goals, which have been adopted by making it more comprehensive.
A total of 17 goals were set in the United Nations Agenda 2030.
Referendum in New Caledonia :
Why in News?
The French territory of New Caledonia voted against independence from France in a referendum held recently.
- The referendum was a part of a decolonisation plan agreed in 1998, known as the Noumea Accord.
About the Nouméa Accord:
The Nouméa Accord of 1998 is a promise by the French Republic to grant increased political power to New Caledonia and its original population, the Kanaks.
What is the Issues?
The issue of autonomy and independence from France for a long time.
- New Caledonia has deep divisions between its indigenous Kanak population and Europeans,with indigenous Kanaks favouring independence and Europeans being against it.
- In the 1980s, the country had violent conflicts between the opponents and supporters of independence which culminated into Matignon Accordsin 1988.
The Accords specified a 10-year transitory status, after which a self-determination referendum would be held.
- The Noumea Accord, which was concluded in 1998, provided for a practically sovereign status.
- Under this agreement, New Caledonia is allowed up to three referendums on independence, the latest one being the last of them.
- About:New Caledonia is an archipelago and special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean.
- Population:The indigenous Kanaks represent around 39% of the population, while European settlers (known as Caldoches) make up about 27%.
Most of the remainder are from other Pacific islands, which are of mixed heritage, called Caledonians.
- New Caledonia was discovered in 1774by the British navigator James Cook.
- It was annexed by France in 1853.
- In 1946, New Caledonia became an overseas territory.
- By 1953, French citizenship had been granted to all New Caledonians, regardless of ethnicity
FACTS FOR PRELIMS
Recently, scientists from the Centre for Plant Molecular Biology (CPMB) have uncovered the mechanism by which a bacterium called Xoo interacts with rice plants and causes disease.
- Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo)causes a serious bacterial leaf blight disease in rice.
- It is also known as Bacterial blight.
- Xoo is a gram-negative bacteria.