Daily Current Affairs – 2020Topic: For Prelims and Mains
Government of India has submitted two nomination dossiers namely ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ and ‘Monuments and Forts of Deccan Sultanate’ for inclusion in the World Heritage List for the year 2020.
It is a location having an “Outstanding Universal Value”. According to the World Heritage Convention’s Operational Guidelines, an Outstanding Universal Value signifies “cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity.”
The Sites fall into three categories: cultural heritage, natural heritage, and mixed heritage (cultural as well as natural).
The UNESCO World Heritage Committee meets at least once every year, generally in June/July, to deliberate the addition, removal, or modification of items on the list of
According to the Guidelines, the State Parties prepare a Tentative List, or the “inventory of those properties situated on its territory which each State Party considers suitable for nomination to the World Heritage List. A nomination document is then prepared in this regard based on which the application is considered by the Committee.
In India, the Indian National Commission for Co-operation with UNESCO (INCCU), and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) are the bodies which play a key role in this regard.
After receiving nominations from the State Parties, the Committee then puts them through a rigorous examination before any new location can qualify as a World Heritage Site.
Topic: For Prelims and Mains
A recent study by scientists at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG) states that the black carbon concentrations near the Gangotri glacier rose 400 times in summer.
What is Black carbon?
It is a potent climate-warming component of particulate matter formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, wood and other fuels. Complete combustion would turn all carbon in the fuel into carbon dioxide (CO2), but combustion is never complete and CO2, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and organic carbon and black carbon particles are all formed in the process. The complex mixture of particulate matter resulting from incomplete combustion is often referred to as soot.
|460-1,500x||4–12 days||6.6 million tonnes||58%|
|Black carbon has a warming impact on climate 460-1,500 times stronger than CO2 per unit of mass||The average atmospheric lifetime of black carbon particles is 4-12 days||About 6.6 million tonnes of black carbon were emitted in 2015||Household cooking and heating account for 58% of global black carbon emissions|
|BLACK CARBON – 80% emissions reduction potential globally by 2030|
|Replace traditional cooking to clean burning modern fuel cookstoves
Replace traditional cooking and heating with clean-burning biomass stoves
Eliminate kerosene lamps
Replace lump coal with coal briquettes for cooking and heating
Replace wood stove and burners with pellet stoves and boilers
|Modernize traditional brick kilns to vertical shaft brick kilns
Modernize coke ovens to recovery ovens
|Use diesel particular filters for road and off-road vehicles
Fast transition to Euro VI/6 vehicles and soot-free buses and trucks
Eliminate high-emitting diesel vehicles
|AGRICULTURE||Ban open-field burning of agricultural waste|
|FOSSIL FUELS||Capture and improve oil flaring and gas production|
|WASTE MANAGEMENT||Ban open burning of municipal waste|
Black carbon can affect the health of ecosystems in several ways: by depositing on plant leaves and increasing their temperature, dimming sunlight that reaches the earth, and modifying rainfall patterns.
Changing rain patterns can have far-reaching consequences for both ecosystems and human livelihoods, for example by disrupting monsoons, which are critical for agriculture in large parts of Asia and Africa.
Black carbon’s short atmospheric lifetime, combined with its strong warming potential, means that targeted strategies to reduce emissions can provide climate and health benefits within a relatively short period of time.
The Coalition supports implementation of control measures that, if globally implemented by 2030, could reduce global black carbon emissions by as much as 80% (UNEP & WMO 2011).
Several of these emission reductions could be achieved with net cost savings. Adopting these measures would have major positive co-benefits for public health, especially in the developing world.
According to a monthly survey, India’s manufacturing sector activity eased in February 2020 from a near eight-year high in January 2020 and business sentiment took a hit amid fears of the COVID-19 outbreak on exports and supply chains. PMI for India declined from 55.3 in January to 54.5 in February; the reading was at 52.7 in December.
A PMI index of more than 50 indicates the expansion of the manufacturing segment of the economy in comparison with the previous month. A reading of 50 indicates no change. A reading below 50 suggests a contraction of the manufacturing sector.