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Daily Current Affairs – 2020
Topic: For Prelims and Mains
Tibetan Democracy Day
4th September 2019
Why in News?
September 2 marks the anniversary of the establishment of the democratic system of the Tibetan people living in exile in India.
This year, the Tibetan Government-in-Exile celebrated its 59th Democracy Day.
Why is this day significant?
In February 1960, after he crossed over into India, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama outlined in Bodh Gaya, a detailed programme of democratic practice for exiled Tibetans.
He advised them to set up an elected body with three exiled representatives each from the three provinces, and one each from the four religious schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
After elections were held, 13 elected representatives, called ‘Deputies’, were designated as the ‘Commission of Tibetan People’s Deputies’ (CTPD). They took oath on September 2, 1960.
Subsequently from 1975 onward, this date began to be formally observed as Tibetan Democracy Day.
The TPiE is the highest legislative body of the Central Tibetan Administration (CTA).
It is described as one of the three pillars of Tibetan democratic governance — the others being the Judiciary and the Kashag, or Executive.
The CTA is based in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh.
Elections are held every five years to elect Members of the TPiE, and their Sikyong (Prime Minister).
On March 10, 1963, the Dalai Lama promulgated the Constitution of the Tibetan Government-in-Exile (TGiE).
From 1991 onwards, TPiE became the legislative organ of the CTA, the Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission became the judicial organ, and the Kashag the executive organ.
The TGiE is not recognised officially by any country, including India. However, many countries, including the US, deal directly with the Sikyong and other Tibetan leaders through various forums.
Topic: For Prelims and Mains
Malé Declaration :
Why in News? The fourth South Asian Speakers’ Summit was held recently in Maldives capital with the secretary general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and senior lawmakers from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
This is the fourth event in a series of Speakers’ Summits for the region on SDGs, the previous three having been hosted by the Jatiya Sangsad of Bangladesh (in 2016), the Sansad of India (in 2017) and the Parliament of Sri Lanka (2018).
Outcome of the summit:
At the end of the summit, Male Declaration was adopted by the leaders.
About the Male Declaration:
The Declaration “unanimously” felt that Kashmir was an “internal matter” of India and overlooked all assertions made by Islamabad on the issue.
India has defended its decision to scrap provisions of Article 370 that have special status to Jammu and Kashmir, saying that it was an internal matter.
India has also snubbed Pakistan for interfering in the internal matters of the country, saying that Pakistan was misleading the world.
Way ahead for India:
For India, there is now no “outstanding” issue of Kashmir except India’s claim on Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK), which includes Gilgit-Baltistan.
The need for a back-channel to find a solution to the Kashmir issue has disappeared.
India’s decision will also have effect on the Indus Waters Treaty and Pakistan’s strategy of creating obstacles for Indian power projects in Jammu and Kashmir permitted by the treaty.
UN might issue some statement advocating reduction of tensions and peaceful settlement of differences, etc., but a change in India’s domestic law on J&K’s status within the Indian Union is not an international matter as it does not endanger international peace and security.
More importantly, Article 370 does not figure in any UN resolution on Kashmir. It was inserted in the Indian Constitution in 1954 unilaterally by India, many years after the UN resolutions on J&K and, so, it can be unilaterally removed.
Options before Pakistan:
Pakistan has propagandist options, but no substantial ones.
It can try to foment resistance within the valley to India’s decision and step up terrorism in J&K.
This will be risky as support to jihadi activities in J&K will allow India to increase pressure on Pakistan in the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), besides the danger of retaliation from India, which Pakistan can ill afford in view of its distressed economic situation.
Facts for Prelims
AH-64 Apache combat helicopters:
Boeing AH-64 Apache combat helicopters inducted into IAF.
These are US- made helicopters.
It is one of the world’s most advanced attack helicopters with multi-role combat capabilities.
The Apache’s capabilities range from greater thrust, lift and joint digital operability to cognitive decision aiding and improved survivability.
Operation Search Light:
Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971.
Volatility Index or VIX Index:
Created by the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), the Volatility Index, or VIX, is a real-time market indexthat represents the market’s expectation of 30-day forward-looking