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Daily Current Affairs – 2020

Topic: For Prelims and Mains

Swiss Cheese Model

16thJune, 2020

What is Swiss Cheese Model?

In the Swiss Cheese model, an organisation’s defences against failure are modelled as a series of barriers, represented as slices of the cheese. The holes in the cheese slices represent individual weaknesses in individual parts of the system, and are continually varying in size and position in all slices.

Swiss cheese Model and defence system:

  1. Relation between two

  • In Defence System, the Swiss cheese slice works the reverse way.
  • The slices represent the major constituents in a nation’s war-making potential, while the holes are pathways through which the domains interact.
  • At the structural level, there are only three slices with holes in each. These must align to ensure that a nation’s defence posture is in tune with its political objectives; any mismatch may turn out to be detrimental to the national interest.
  1. Slices in Indian Defence system –

  • Policy Apparatus – It comprises ofthe Department of Military Affairs (DMA) and Ministry of Defence (MoD).
  • The defence research and development (R&D) establishment and domestic manufacturing industry.
  • The three services – Army, Navy and Air Force.

Challenges and associated areas of reforms with respect to the Model

  1. China-Pakistan nexus – The increasingly threatening posture of the country’s two adversaries, terrorist activities in Jammu and Kashmir, ongoing incidents along the northern border with China pose greater challenge to Indian defence forces in neighborhood.
  2. Indo-pacific security – The ongoing great game in Indo-pacific between USA and China along with the threat of pirates and terrorism emanating from the ocean demands strengthened defence forces.
  3. Lack of R&D– Swiss cheese slice representing indigenous R&D and a manufacturing supply chain that ensures quality war-fighting equipment, at the right time and in required quantities, is still not a possibility for India.
  4. Absence of theatre commands– Indian deadline for creation of theatre commands is three years from now however the Chinese announced their ‘theaterisation’ concept in 2015 and it is still work in progress. So a clear perspective is required for what and how of the theaterisation concept  in India

Way Forward – The political, civil and military leadership need to ensure that the holes in their Swiss cheese continue to stay aligned which also involves shunning publicity and building capability first for an enhanced defence system.

Agriculture marketing & commodities trade reforms

Why in news

The Cabinet has recently  approved three separate ordinances to push agriculture marketing and commodities trade reforms in the country.

Amendments to Essential Commodities Act(1955):

  • Aim: To deregulate the commodities such as cereals, edible oils, oilseeds, pulses, onions and potatoes.
    • Any limits under ECA over these commodities will be imposed only in exceptional circumstances such as war, famine, extraordinary price rise and natural calamity.
  • Significance: It will help to lessen the fears of private investors of excessive regulatory interference in their business operations and will attract private sector/foreign direct investment into the agriculture sector.

Farming Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Ordinance,2020:

  • Aim: To open up agricultural marketing outside the notified Agricultural Produce Market Committee(APMC) for farmers and also remove barriers to inter-State trade.
  • Significance: It will open more choices for the farmer, reduce marketing costs for the farmers and help them in getting better prices. It is also expected to pave the way for creating One India, One Agriculture Market in the country.

Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Ordinance,2020:

  • Aim: To facilitate contract farming where a private buyer contracts to purchase a crop at a certain price at the beginning of a season, transferring the risk of market unpredictability from the farmer to the corporate sponsor.
    • It also provides an effective dispute resolution mechanism with clear timelines for redressal.
  • Significance:It enables the farmer to access modern technology and better inputs. It will reduce the cost of marketing and improve income of farmers and will help in attracting private investment.

Facts for Prelims

International Organization of the Francophone (IOOTF):

The IOOTF is one of the largest linguistic organisation that represents those countries and regions where French is the first (Mother Tongue) or customary language.

  • It was created in 1970 with the motto of “equality, complementarity and solidarity”.
  • Presently, it has 57 member states and governments along with three associate members and twenty observers.

Virtual Global Vaccine Summit:

At the Virtual Global Vaccine Summit, India has pledged 15 Million US Dollars to Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations(GAVI).


  • The Global Vaccine Summit of GAVI is being hosted by the UK government.
  • Aim: To mobilise funding in order to protect the next generation with vaccines, reduce disease inequality and create a healthier, safer and more prosperous world.

Additional Facts:

  • GAVI: It is a global Vaccine Alliance created in 2000 by bringing together public and private sectors with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries.


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