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Daily Current Affairs – 2020

Topic: For Prelims and Mains

RECIPROCRATING TERRITORY

9th Sep 2020

Why in News?

Recently India declared the UAE to be a Reciprocating Territory.

The Ministry of Law and Justice issued a Gazette Notification, declaring the United Arab Emirates to be a “reciprocating territory” under Section 44A of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908. The notification also declared a list of courts in the UAE to be “superior Courts” under the same section.

 These courts include:

  1. The Federal Supreme Court, and
  2. Certain local courts, such as the Abu Dhabi Judicial Department and the Dubai Courts.

What is meant by a ‘reciprocating territory’ and what are superior courts?

  • “Reciprocating territory” means any country or territory outside India which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be a reciprocating territory for the purposes Section 44(1) of the CPC.

“Superior Courts”, with reference to any such territory, means such Courts as may be specified in the said notification.”

Essentially, orders passed by certain designated courts from a ‘reciprocating territory’ can be implemented in India, by filing a copy of the decree concerned in a District Court here.

The courts so designated are called ‘superior Courts’.

  • The Local orders passed by Superior Courts from a reciprocating territory can be executed in India as if it were passed by a civil court in India.

Other countries declared to be “reciprocating territories” are:

United Kingdom, Singapore, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Trinidad & Tobago, New Zealand, the Cook Islands (including Niue) and the Trust Territories of Western Samoa, Hong Kong, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Aden.

What does Section 44 of the CPC say?

  • Section 44A, titled “Execution of decrees passed by Courts in the reciprocating territory”, provides the law on the subject of execution of decrees of Courts in India by foreign Courts and vice versa.
  • The scope of the Section is restricted to decrees for the payment of money, not being sums payable in respect of taxes or other charges of a like nature or in respect of fine or other penalties.
  • It also cannot be based on an arbitration award, even if such an award is enforceable as a decree or judgment.

Significance of the move:

  • The decision is believed to help bring down the time required for executing decrees between the two countries.

HSDTV

Why in News?

The Prime Minister has recently congratulated Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the successful flight of Hypersonic Test Demonstration Vehicle (HSTDV).

HSTDV: It is an unmanned scramjet demonstration aircraft for hypersonic speed flight.

Purpose: It is being developed as a carrier vehicle for hypersonic and long-range cruise missiles and will have multiple civilian applications including missiles of the future for air defence, surveillance besides in the development of energy-efficient, low cost and reusable satellite-launch vehicles.

Developed by: It has been developed by the Indian Defence Research and Development Organization(DRDO).

 

Ramjet: It is a form of air-breathing jet engine that uses the vehicle’s forward motion to compress incoming air for combustion without a rotating compressor.

Working: Fuel is injected in the combustion chamber where it mixes with the hot compressed air and ignites. A ramjet-powered vehicle requires an assisted take-off like a rocket assist to accelerate it to a speed where it begins to produce thrust.

Drawback: Ramjets work most efficiently at supersonic speeds around Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound) and can operate up to speeds of Mach 6. However, the ramjet efficiency starts to drop when the vehicle reaches hypersonic speeds.

Scramjet: It is an improvement over the ramjet engine as it efficiently operates at hypersonic speeds and allows supersonic combustion. Thus it is known as Supersonic Combustion Ramjet or Scramjet.

 

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace:

Why in News?

Noted broadcaster Sir David Attenborough to be presented with Indira Gandhi peace prize 2019.

The Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development was instituted in the memory of the former prime minister by a trust in her name in 1986.

It consists of a monetary award of Rs 25 lakh along with a citation

Eligibility: The award is given to individuals or organisations who work towards ensuring international peace and development, ensuring that scientific discoveries are used to further the scope of freedom and better humanity, and creating new international economic order.

 

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