Daily Current Affairs – 2020
Topic: For Prelims and Mains
Pollution in Yamuna River
Why in news?
CPCB raises concern on Pollution and Frothing in River Yamuna. It has asked Delhi and other states for effective sewage treatment.
CPCB has observed froth formation and increase in ammonia levels in river Yamuna due to discharge of untreated sewage, non-operation of existing Sewage Treatment Plants, improper functioning of Effluent Treatment Plants(ETPs).
What is Sewage Treatment Plant?
- Sewage treatment is the treatment of contaminated and waste water coming out of domestic and industrial units.
- Under this, water is preserved by separating the waste materials present in the water through physical, biological and occasional chemical processes.
The pollution Measurement parameter :
- According to board officials, the purity of Yamuna water is measured on the basis of three major parameters.
- In which the amount of BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) should be 30 mg per liter, the amount of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 250 mg per liter, TSS (Total Suspended Solids) should be 100 mg per liter.
What is Biological Oxygen Demand?
- Biochemical oxygen demandis the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria and other microorganisms while they decompose organic matter under aerobic conditions.
- The common lake or stream contains small amounts of oxygen in the form of dissolved oxygen (DO).
- Dissolved oxygenis a crucial component of natural water bodies, maintaining the aquatic life and quality aesthetic of streams and lakes.
- The decay of organic matter in water is measured as biochemical oxygen demand.
- Environmental stresses and other human-induced factors can lessen the amount of dissolved oxygen in a water body, however.
- Biological oxygen demand is essentially a measure of the amount of oxygen required to remove waste organic matter from water in the process of decomposition by aerobic bacteria.
About the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB):
- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is a statutory organization.
- It was formed in September 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
Apart from this, the Central Pollution Control Board was also delegated powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution; Plan and execute nation‑wide Pollution Control programmes; Co-ordinate the activities of State Boards and Pollution Control Committees; Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards. Carryout an sponsor investigation and research related to pollution control;; Plan and organise training programmes; Organise mass awareness programmes; Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution; Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of wastes; Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution; Lay down, modify or annul waster and air quality standards; and. Perform such other functions as and when prescribed by the Government of India.
Facts for Prelims:
HL-2M Tokamak: The Artificial Sun of China:
China successfully powered up its “artificial sun” nuclear fusion reactor for the first time marking a great advance in the country’s nuclear power research capabilities.
- The HL-2M Tokamak reactor is China’s largest and most advanced nuclear fusion experimental research device.
Name of the mission: Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST).
Location: Sichuan province
- The reactor is often called an “artificial sun” due to the enormous heat and power it produces.
- It uses a powerful magnetic field to fuse hot plasma and can reach temperatures of over 150 million degrees Celsius which is approximately ten times hotter than the core of the sun.
Scientists hope that the device can potentially unlock a powerful clean energy source.