Daily Current Affairs – 2020
Topic: For Prelims and Mains
Persian Gulf Region (Arabian Gulf)
8th June, 2020
Why in News?
The Persian Gulf region is the major producers of crude oil and natural gas. It is very important for Global Economy.
- Thus, maintaining peace in the geopoliticallysignificant region through cooperative security by the regional members and major world economies is one of the best solutions to stabilize the region politically and economically.
About The Persian Gulf Region:
- The Persian Gulf is a Mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest.
- The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.
The lands around the Persian Gulf are shared by eight countries namely, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
- These all eight countries are members of the United Nations.
- United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
- Out of persian gulf countries, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates(UAE) and Saudi Arabia are members of OPEC.
Being major producers of crude oil and natural gas, there is a commonality of interest among these countries.
This commonality of interest has given rise to their own prosperity and subsequently, economico-political entanglements among them.
Periodic Labour Force Survey(PLFS) :Annual Report
Context: National Statistical Office(NSO) has released the Periodic Labour Force Survey(PLFS) for July 2018 to June 2019.
- Unemployment Rate(UR):It is defined as the percentage of persons unemployed among the persons in the labour force.
- It has reduced to 5.8% during 2018-19 from 6.1% during the same period of 2017-18.Under this, urban unemployment rate reduced to 7.7% in 2018-19 from 7.8% and in rural India to 5% from 5.3%.
- Labour Force Participation Rate(LFPR): It is defined as the percentage of persons in the labour force (i.e. working or seeking or available for work) in the population.
- It has increased to 37.5% during 2018-19 from 36.9% of 2017-18.
- Female Labour Force Participation Rate: It is the share of working-age women who report either being employed, or being available for work.
- It has also improved to 18.6% in 2018-19 from 17.5% the year before.
- Worker Population Ratio (WPR):It is defined as the percentage of employed persons in the population.
- It has increased to 35.3% as against 34.7% in the 2017-18.
- Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS): It is India’s first computer based survey launched by the National Statistical Office(NSO) in 2017.
- to estimate the key employment and unemployment indicators in the short time interval of three months for the urban areas only in the Current Weekly Status(CWS).
- to estimate employment and unemployment indicators in both usual status and CWS in both rural and urban areas annually.
- Activity Status- Usual Status:It is determined on the basis of the activities pursued by the person during the specified reference period.
- When the activity status is determined on the basis of the reference period of the last 365 days preceding the date of survey, it is known as the usual activity status of the person.
- Activity Status- Current Weekly Status(CWS): It is determined on the basis of a reference period of last 7 days preceding the date of survey is known as the current weekly status (CWS) of the person.
Sixth Mass Extinction
Why in News?
According to researchers at National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America(PNAS), the ongoing sixth mass extinction may be one of the most serious environmental threats to the persistence of civilisation.
Mass extinction: It refers to a substantial increase in the degree of extinction or when the Earth loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short period of time.
Earlier Extinctions: There have been five mass extinctions that have taken place in the last 450 million years.
- This have led to the destruction of 70%-95% of the species of plants, animals and microorganisms that existed earlier.
- These extinctions were caused by catastrophic alterations to the environment such as: Massive volcanic eruptions, Depletion of oceanic oxygen, Collision with an asteroid among others.
Sixth Extinction: The sixth mass extinction which is ongoing is referred to as the Anthropocene extinction or Holocene extinction.
- The research has claimed that this extinction is human-caused and is more immediate than climate destruction.
- The rate of extinction of species is also estimated at 100 to 1,000 times higher than natural background rates.
Facts for Prelims
Russian President has declared a state of emergency after 20,000 tonnes of diesel oil spilled into Ambarnaya river turning its surface crimson red.
- Ambarnaya River:It is a shallow river in Siberia, Russia which flows into Lake Pyasino, the source of Pyasina River.
- The river is also part of a network that flows into the environmentally sensitive Arctic Ocean.
The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) has issued an advisory to streamline and formalize the process of importing live exotic animals.
Exotic Animals: According to the advisory, exotic animals are those that are mentioned under the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), but not under the schedules of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
Key features of the advisory:
- It has provisions for import and disclosure of exotic animals and their progeny already in India.
- A person trying to import a live exotic animal will have to apply for grant of a license to the DGFT.
- The importer will also have to attach a No Objection Certificate (NOC) of the chief wildlife warden of the state concerned.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora): It is an international agreement between governments. It aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.