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Daily Current Affairs – 2020

Topic: For Prelims and Mains

National Health Profile- 2019

2nd Nov 2019

Why in news?

The 14th edition of National Health Profile and its e-book (digital version) has been released by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI).

  • CBHI has been publishing the National Health Profile since 2005and its digital version since 2015.
  • The objective of this publication is to create a versatile database of health information of Indiaand making it available to all stakeholders in the healthcare sector.
  • The purpose is to provide relevant information for planning and decision making on an informed basis to the planners, policy makers, health administrators, research workers and others engaged in raising the health and socio-economic status of the community.
  • The NHP highlights substantial health information under major indicators viz.

Demographic indicators: population and vital statistics.

Socio-economic indicators: education, employment, housing and amenities, drinking water and sanitation.

Health status indicators: incidence and prevalence of common communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Health finance indicators: health insurance and expenditure on health.

Health of human resources: availability of manpower working in the health sector.

Health infrastructure: details of Medical and Dental Colleges, AYUSH Institutes, Nursing Courses and Paramedical Courses

Key Findings:

  • Life Expectancy:Life expectancy in India has increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to7 years in 2012-16.
  • From 2012-16, the life expectancy for females was 70.2 years and 67.4 years for males.
  • Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):The IMR has declined considerably (33 per 1,000 live births in 2016), however differentials of rural (37) & urban (23) are still high.
  • Population Growth Rate:There has been a consistent decline in the birth rate, death rate and natural growth rate in India since 1991 to 2017.

As of 2017, India has registered birth rate of 20.2 per 1,000 population and death rate of 6.3 per 1,000 population while the natural growth rate was 13.9 per 1,000 population.

Demographics: It found the high incidence of the young and economically active population.

It reports that 27% of population below 14 years, 64.7% in the age group of 15-59 and 8.5% above 60 years.

  • Total Fertility Rate (TFR):NHP reports TFR of 2.3 for the country.
  • 5 for rural areas and 1.8 for urban areas.

Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI)

  • Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI) was established in 1961under the Directorate General of Health Services with the vision to have “A strong Health Management Information System (HMIS) in entire country”.

Total Fertility Rate: TFR measures the number of children born to a woman at the end of childbearing age.

Infant Mortality Rate: The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year per 1,000 live births.

Life Expectancy: Life expectancy refers to the number of years a person is expected to live based on the statistical average.

Birth Rate: The number of live births per thousand of population per year.

Death Rate: The number of deaths per year per thousand of population in a given community, area, or group.

Natural Growth Rate: It is the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths occurring in a year, divided by the mid-year population of that year, multiplied by a factor (usually 1,000).

Malware -Pegasus

Why in news?

Govt. questions WhatsApp after spyware is used for snooping.

More about the news

  • Pegasus is the spyware (Malware), developed by Israel-based security company, NSO Group Technologies, and was used to hack and snoop on journalists, lawyers and activists in India, presumably by the government.
  • Pegasus is meant to infiltrate smartphones silently and work on three things — collect historic data on device, continuously monitor activity and transmit this data to a third party.
  • In WhatsApp’s case, it used vulnerability in the app that allowed infection through missed video calls


  • Malware is the shortened form of malicious software.
  • Malware is an umbrella term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive software including Ransom waresComputer VirusesWorms, Trojan HorsesSpywareAdwareScare ware
  • This is any program or file that is harmful to a computer user.
  • Malware refers to software that is deployed with malicious intent.
  • It can be deployed even remotely, and tracking the source of malware is hard.
  • These malicious programs can perform a variety of functions, including stealingencrypting or deleting sensitive dataaltering or hijacking core computing functions and monitoring users’ computer activity without their permission.
  • It spreads through the Emails, Internet surfing, Outdated softwares, Local Area Networks (LANs), Instant messaging (IM) and peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing systems, Social networks, screen Pop-ups,Computer storage media and Mobile devices.

Monetary gains behind it

  • Malwares may be used by hackers and even some governments for monitoring their targets.
  • Organized crime syndicates and state-sponsored espionage agents are the main customers.
  • This increased demand has enabled commercial malware providers to supply sophisticated black markets for both malware and the information that it collects.

Different Types of Malwares

  • Adware: The least dangerous Adware displays as ads on your computer.

Spyware: Spyware is software that spies on you, tracking your internet activities in order to send advertising (Adware) back to your system.

Virus: A virus is a contagious program or code that attaches itself to another piece of software, and then reproduces itself when that software is run.

Spam: Spamming is a method of flooding the Internet with copies of the same message… These spam emails are very annoying as it keeps coming every day and keeps your mailbox full.

Worm: A program that replicates itself and destroys data and files on the computer. Worms work to eat the system operating files and data files until the drive is empty.

Trojan: A Trojan horse or Trojan is a type of malware that is often disguised as legitimate software. Trojans are written with the purpose of discovering your financial information, taking over your computer’s system resources, and in larger systems creating a “denial-of-service attack” which is making a machine or network resource unavailable to those attempting to reach it.

Backdoors: Backdoors are much the same as Trojans or worms, except that they open a “backdoor” on a computer, providing a network connection for hackers or other Malware to enter or for viruses or SPAM to be sent.

Rootkit: It is the hardest of all Malware to detect and therefore to remove. It is designed to permit the other information gathering Malware in to get the identity information from your computer without you realizing anything is going on.

Key loggers: It Records everything you type on your PC in order to glean your log-in names, passwords, and other sensitive information, and send it on to the source of the key logging program.


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