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Daily Current Affairs – 2019

Topic: For Prelims and Mains

Munich Agreement

 3rdseptember 2019

Why in News? 

  • On September 1, 1939 — German troops marched into Poland, triggering the beginning of World War II.
  • Great Britain and France, which had assured help to Poland, declared war on Germany and its allies two days later, on September 3. The beginning of the War exposed to the world the folly of the Munich Agreement.

 

What is Munich Agreement?

  • The Agreement was signed among Germany, France, Italy, and Great Britain on September 29-30, 1938. Czechoslovakia, the country whose region was about to be annexed, was not officially party to the Agreement. It was forced to agree to the deal under pressure from Great Britain and France, which had a military alliance with the country.
  • The Agreement allowed for the cessation to Germany of Sudetenland. The German occupation was to be done in four stages from October 1-10, 1938.
  • The cessation in some places was subject to a plebiscite.
  • The Czechoslovak government was supposed to release from their military and police forces within four weeks of the signing of the Agreement, any Sudeten Germans who wished to be released, and all Sudeten German prisoners.

Outcome:

  • Six months after the Munich Agreement was signed, Hitler went back on his commitments and invaded the whole of Czechoslovakia. War was on its way.
  • The agreement has been seen as a disastrous act of appeasement of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi regime, and historical evidence that expansionist totalitarianism cannot be dealt with through placation.

 

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Topic: For Prelims and Mains

‘Samudrayaan’ project :

Why in News? 

                           India to undertake deep ocean mining with ‘Samudrayaan’ project.

About Samudrayaan:

  • It is a pilot project of the Ministry of Earth Sciences for deep ocean mining for rare minerals.
  • It proposes to send men into the deep sea in a submersible vehicle for ocean studies.
  • The project is expected to become a reality by 2021-22.
  • The project has been undertaken by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT).

Significance:

  • If the ‘Samudrayaan’ project is successful, India will join the league of developed nations in the exploration of minerals from oceans.
  • India could be the first developing country to undertake such a project.

What are PMN?

  • Polymetallic nodules (also known as manganese nodules) are potato-shaped, largely porous nodules found in abundance carpeting the sea floor of world oceans in deep sea.
  • Composition: Besides manganese and iron, they contain nickel, copper, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium, of which nickel, cobalt and copper are considered to be of economic and strategic importance.
  • Potential: It is envisaged that 10% of recovery of that large reserve can meet the energy requirement of India for the next 100 years.
  • It has been estimated that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean.

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Facts for Prelims:

What is an Interpol Red Notice, what does it do?

  • Interpol describes an RN as “a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action”.
  • RNs contain information that helps identify wanted persons, such as their names, dates of birth, nationality, and physical attributes such as the colour of their hair and eyes, as well as pictures and biometric data such as fingerprints, if they are available.
  • RNs also mention the crime(s) they are wanted for.
  • An RN is published by Interpol at the request of a member country.

 

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