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Daily Current Affairs – 2020

Topic: For Prelims and Mains

M Sand

Why in News?

  • The Rajasthan government has brought a policy on manufactured sand.
  • This will give industry status to the units producing it for construction work and will reduce the dependence on riverbed sand.

The Policy:

  • The policy will enable the investors to set up M-sand units by utilising the incentives offered by the State government.
  • It will also help in environmental protection and generate faith among the public in the efficacy of M-sand for construction works.
  • The policy would help create employment opportunities through new units and resolve the issue of huge quantities of waste generated in the mining areas.

What is M-Sand?

  • Manufactured sand is produced from hard granite stone by crushing and is used as a substitute of river sand for concrete construction.
  • The crushed sand is of cubical shape with grounded edges, washed and graded to as a construction material.
  • The size of manufactured sand (M-Sand) is less than 4.75mm.


  • It can be dust free and the sizes of m-sand can be controlled easily so that it meets the required grading for the given construction.
  • It is well graded in the required proportion.
  • It does not contain organic and soluble compounds that affect the setting time and properties of cement, thus the required strength of concrete can be maintained.
  • It does not have the presence of impurities such as clay, dust and silt coatings.


  • The Supreme Court had on November 16, 2017 restrained 82 large lease holders in the State from carrying out mining of riverbed sand.
  • The mining was banned until a scientific replenishment study was completed and the Ministry of Environment and Forest granted the clearance.
  • The apex court later appointed a Central Empowered Committee to look into the issue of illegal sand mining.


Facts for Prelims :

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

  • It is located in the Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu.
  • It shares a border with Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) in the west and Bandipur Tiger Reserve (Karnataka) in the north.
  • This reserve is part of the Eucalyptus Biosphere Reserve.
  • Eucalyptus is the first biosphere reserve in India.
  • It was declared a Biosphere Reserve in the year
  • Fauna: tiger, elephant, Indian gaur, panther, sambar, spotted deer, barking deer, mouse deer, common langur, Malabar Giant Squirrel, wild dog, weasel, wild cat, Hyena


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