Online Portal Download Mobile App हिंदी ACE +91 9415011892 / 9415011893

IFS

  • The Union Public Service Commission conducts Indian Forest Service (IFS) Examination every year for which Please click on following topic to know the details…

Eligibility for Indian Forest Service Examination IFS Exam (UPSC IFS) :
(i) Nationality
A candidate must be either :—

  1. A citizen of India, or
  2. a subject of Nepal, or
  3. a subject of Bhutan, or
  4. a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India. or
  5. a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Srilanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India.

Provided that a candidate belonging to ca-tegories (b), (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.
A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him by the Government of India.
(ii) Age Limits :

  1. A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 30 years on 1st July,
  2. The upper age limit prescribed above will be relaxable :–

(i) upto a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe.
(ii) upto a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates.
(iii) upto a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the State of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from the 1st January, 1981 to the 31st day of December, 1990.
(iv) upto a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services personnel disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and released as a consequence thereof:
(v) upto a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st July, and have been released (i) on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st July,) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or (ii) on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service, or (iii) on invalidment.
(vi) Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs who have completed an initial period of assignment of five years of Military Service as on 1st July,  and whose assignment has been extended beyond five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and that they will be released on three month’s notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment.
(vii) upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and Orthopaedically handicapped persons.
NOTE I: Candidates belonging to the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes who are also covered under any other clauses of para 3(ii) (b) above, viz. those coming under the category of Ex-servicemen, persons domiciled in the State of J & K, blind, deaf-mute and orthopadically handicapped etc. will be eligible for grant of cumulative age-relaxation under both the categories.
NOTE II: The term ex-servicemen will apply to the persons who are defined as ex-servicemen in the Ex-servicemen (Re-employment in Civil Services and Posts) Rules, 1979, as amended from time to time.
Note III: The age concession under Para 3(ii)(b)(v) and (vi) will not be admissible to Ex-Servicemen and Commissioned Officers including ECOs/SSCOs, who are released on own request.
NOTE IV: Notwithstanding the provision of age-relaxation under para 3(ii) (b) (vii) above, a physically disabled candidate will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as the Government or appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/posts to be allocated to the physically disabled candidates by the Government.
Save as provided above the age limits prescribed can in no case be relaxed.
The date of birth accepted by the Commission is that entered in the Matriculation or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or in a certificate recognised by an Indian University as equivalent to Matriculation or in an extract from a Register of Matriculates maintained by a University, which extract must be certified by the proper authority of the University or in the Higher Secondary or an equivalent examination certificate.
No other document relating to age like horoscopes, affidavits, birth extracts from Municipal Corporation, service records and the like will be accepted.
The expression Matriculation/Secondary Examination Certificate in this part of the instruction includes the alternative certificates mentioned above.
Note 1: Candidates should note that only the Date of Birth as recorded in the Matriculation/Secondary Examination Certificate or an equivalent certificate on the date of submission of applications will be accepted by the Commission and no subsequent request for its change will be considered or granted.
Note 2 : Candidates should also note that once a Date of Birth has been claimed by them and entered in the records of the Commission for the purpose of admission to an Examination, no change will be allowed sub- sequently (or at any other Examination of the Commission) on any grounds whatsoever.
Note 3 : The candidate should exercise due care while entering their date of birth in column 8 of the application form. If on verification at any subsequent stage, any variation is found in their date of birth from the one entered in their matriculation or equivalent Examination certificate, disciplinary action will be taken against them by the commission under the Rules.



Indian Forest Service Examination – Educational Qualifications
(iii) Minimum Educational Qualifications for IFS Exam  (UPSC IFS ) :
The candidate must hold a Bachelor’s degree with at least one of the subjects namely Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science, Botany, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Zoology or a Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture, Forestry or in Engineering of any of Universities incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University Under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualification.
Note I: Candidates who have appeared at an examination the passing of which would render them educationally qualified for the Commission’s examination but have not been informed of the results as also the candidates who intend to appear at such a qualifying examination will also be eligible for admission to this examination.
Such candidates will be admitted to the examination if otherwise eligible but their admission would be deemed to be provisional and subject to cancellation, if they do not produce proof of having passed the requisite examination along with the detailed application which will be required to be submitted to the Commission by the candidates who qualify on the result of the written part of the examination.
Note II: In exceptional cases the Union Public Service Commission may treat a candidate who has not any of the foregoing qualifications as a qualified candidate provided that he/she has passed examination conducted by the other Institutions, the standard of which in the opinion of the Commission justifies his/her admission to the examination.
IFS Exam  Educational Qualification Code
Codes prescribed for educational qualification are as follows :

Code

Educational qualification

01

If you have already passed the requisite qualifying Examination, with prescribed subject;

02

If you have appeared/appearing at the requisite qualifying Examination, with prescribed subject;

Choose the correct code applicable in your case and darken the appropriate circles. Write the same code in the boxes.
(iv) Number of attempts :
Every candidate appearing at the Examination, who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted four attempts at the examination.
The restriction is effective from the examination held in 1984.
Provided that this restriction on the number of attempts will not apply in the case of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates who are otherwise eligible.
Provided further that the number of attempts permissible to candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes, who are otherwise eligible, shall be seven.
Note 1 – A candidate shall be deemed to have made an attempt at the examination if he actually appears in any one or more papers.
Note 2 – Notwithstanding the disqualification/cancellation of candidature the fact of appearance of the candidate at the examination will count as an attempt.
(v) Physical Standards :Candidates must be physically fit according to physical standards for admission to Indian Forest Service Examination,  of the rules for the Indian Forest Service Examination,  published in Gazette of India dated 14th February, .



Indian Forest Service Examination – Exam Fee
4. Indian Forest Service Examination IFS  Exam (UPSC IFS ) FEE: A candidate seeking admission to examination must pay to the Commission a fee of Rs. 100.00 (Rupees One Hundred only) through a single Central Recruitment Fee Stamp of the requisite denomination (NOT postage stamps) may be obtained from the post office and affixed on the application form in the space provided therein. The stamp must be got cancelled from the issuing Post Office with the date stamp of the post office in such a manner that the impression of the cancellation mark partially overflow on the application form itself but within the space provided on the form. The impression of the cancellation mark should be clear and distinct to facilitate the identification of date and the Post Office of issue.
Candidates residing abroad should deposit the prescribed fee in the office of India’s High Commissioner, Ambassador or representative abroad as the case may be for credit to account head “051-Public Service Commission-Examination Fees” and attach the receipt with the application.
Candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes are not required to pay any fee. No Fee exemption is, However, Available to OBC Candidates and they are required to pay the prescribed full fee.
Physically disabled persons are exempted from the payment of fee provided they are otherwise eligible for appointment to the Services/Posts to be filled on the results of this examination on the basis of the standards of medical fitness for these Services/Posts (including any concessions specifically extended to the physically disabled). A physically disabled candidate claiming age relaxation/fee concession will be required by the Commission to submit along with his/her detailed application form, a certified copy of the certificate from a Government Hospital/Medical Board in support of his/her claim for being physically disabled.
Note: Notwithstanding the aforesaid provision for age relaxation/fee exemption, a physically disabled candidate will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he (after such physical examination as the Government or the appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/Posts to be allocated to Physically Disabled candidates by the Government.
‘Postage Stamps’ will in no case be accepted in lieu of ‘Central Recruitment Fee Stamp’.Candidates should note that the fee sent through Indian Postal Orders, Bank Draft, Money Order, Crossed Cheque, Currency notes or Treasury Challan etc. will not be accepted by the Commission and such applications will be treated as without fee and will be summarily rejected.
Note I: Applications not accompanied by the prescribed Fee (Unless remission of Fee is claimed) shall be summarily rejected.
Note II: Fee once paid shall not be refunded under any circumstances nor can the fee be held in reserve for any other examination or selection.
Note III: If any candidate who took the Indian Forest Services Examination held in  wishes to apply for admission to this examination, he must submit his application so as to reach the Commission’s Office by the prescribed date without waiting for the results or an offer of appointment.

Paper-1
Section-A
1. Non-chordata and chordata :

  1. Classfication and relationship of varous phyla upto sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
  2. Protozoa : Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium, and Leishmania.
  3. Porifera : Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.
  4. Coelenterata : Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
  5. Platyhelminthes : Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their relation to man.
  6. Nemathelminthes : General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris; nemathelminths in relation to man.
  7. Annelida : Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of nereis (Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirudinaria).
  8. Arthropoda : Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insects and its hormonal regulation; social organization in insects (termites and honey bees).
  9. Mollusca : Feeding, respiration, locomotion, shell diversiy; general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
  10. Echinodermata : Feeding, respiration, locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.
  11. Protochordata : Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
  12. Pisces : Scales, respiration, locomotion, migration.
  13. Amphibia : Origin of tetrapods; parental care, paedomorphosis.
  14. Reptilia : Origin of reptiles; skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocidiles.
  15. Aves : Origin of birds; flight adaptation, migration.
  16. Mammalia : Origin of mammals; denitition; general features of egg-laying mammals, pouched-mammals, aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other hormone producing structures (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.
  17. Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches; urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).

Section- B
1. Ecology :

  1. Biosphere: Biogeochemical cycles, green-houses effect, ozone layer and its impact; ecological succession, biomes and ecotones.
  2. Population, characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.
  3. Conservation of natural resources- mineral mining, fisheries, aquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife (Project Tiger); susainable production in agriculture-integrated pest management.
  4. Environmental biodegradation; pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.

II. Ethology :

  1. Behaviour : Sensory filtering, responsiveness, sign stimuli, learning, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
  2. Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social behaviour in insects and primates; courtship (Drosophila, 3-spine stickleback and birds).
  3. Orientation, navigation, homing; biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
  4. Methods of studying animal behaviour.

III. Economic Zoology :

  1. Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
  2. Major infectious and communicable diseases (small pox, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
  3. Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogens (helminths) and vectors (ticks, mites,Tabanus, Stomoxys)
  4. Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella), oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).

IV. Biostatistics :
Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student t-test, F-test (one-way & two-way F-test).
V. Instrumental methods :

  1. Spectrophotometry, flame photometry, Geiger-Muller counter, scintiliation counting.
  2. Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).

Paper-II
Section-A
I. Cell Biology :

  1. Structure and function of cell andits organelles(nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and Iysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movement.
  2. Watson-Crick model of DNA, replication of DNA, protein synthesis, transcription and transcription factors.

II. Genetics

  1. Gene structure and functions; genetic code.
  2. Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Drosophilla, nematodes and man.
  3. Mendel’s laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkage-maps, multiple alleles, cistron concept; genetics of blood groups.
  4. Mutations and mutagenesis : radiation and chemical.
  5. Cloning technology, plasmids and cosmids as vectors, transgenics, transposons, DNA sequence cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
  6. Regulation and gene expression in pro-and eu-karyotes.
  7. Signal transduction; pedigree-analysis; congenital diseases in man.
  8. Human genome mapping; DNA finger-printing.

III. Evolution

  1. Origin of life
  2. Natural selection, role of mutation in evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation, speciation.
  3. Fossils and fossilization; evolution of horse, elephant and man.
  4. Hardy-Weinberg Law, causes of change in gene frequency.
  5. Continental drift and distribution of animals.

IV. Systematics

  1. Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics.

Section-B
I. Biochemistry

  1. Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, lipids, proteins, aminoacids, nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fattyacids, cholesterol.
  2. Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and release, ATP, cyclic AMP-its structure and role.
  3. Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.
  4. Enzymes : types and mechanisms of action; immunoglobulin and immunity; vitamins and co-enzymes.
  5. Bioenergetics.

II Physiology (with special refernece ot mammals)

  1. Composition and constitutents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man; coagulation, factors and mechanism of coagulation; acid-base balance, thermo regulation.
  2. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport; haemoglobin : constitutents and role in regulation.
  3. Nutritive requirements; role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion and absorption.
  4. Excretory products; nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation.
  5. Types of muscles, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles.
  6. Neuron, nerve impulse-its conduction and synaptic transmission; neurotransmitters.
  7. Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
  8. Mechanism of hormone action.
  9. Physiology of reproduction, role of hormones and phermones.

III. Developmental Biology

  1. Differentiation from gamete to neurula stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia, induction, morphogenesis and morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and chick; organogenesis of eye and heart, placenation in mammals.
  2. Role of cytoplasm in and genetic control of development; cell lineage; causation of metamorphosis in frog and insects; paedogenesia and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell death; ageing; blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
  3. Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
  4. Baer’s law; evo-devo concept.

Paper-1
Section-A
1. Non-chordata and chordata :

  1. Classfication and relationship of varous phyla upto sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
  2. Protozoa : Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium, and Leishmania.
  3. Porifera : Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.
  4. Coelenterata : Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
  5. Platyhelminthes : Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their relation to man.
  6. Nemathelminthes : General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris; nemathelminths in relation to man.
  7. Annelida : Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of nereis (Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirudinaria).
  8. Arthropoda : Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insects and its hormonal regulation; social organization in insects (termites and honey bees).
  9. Mollusca : Feeding, respiration, locomotion, shell diversiy; general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
  10. Echinodermata : Feeding, respiration, locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.
  11. Protochordata : Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
  12. Pisces : Scales, respiration, locomotion, migration.
  13. Amphibia : Origin of tetrapods; parental care, paedomorphosis.
  14. Reptilia : Origin of reptiles; skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocidiles.
  15. Aves : Origin of birds; flight adaptation, migration.
  16. Mammalia : Origin of mammals; denitition; general features of egg-laying mammals, pouched-mammals, aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other hormone producing structures (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.
  17. Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches; urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).

Section- B
1. Ecology :

  1. Biosphere: Biogeochemical cycles, green-houses effect, ozone layer and its impact; ecological succession, biomes and ecotones.
  2. Population, characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.
  3. Conservation of natural resources- mineral mining, fisheries, aquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife (Project Tiger); susainable production in agriculture-integrated pest management.
  4. Environmental biodegradation; pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.

II. Ethology :

  1. Behaviour : Sensory filtering, responsiveness, sign stimuli, learning, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
  2. Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social behaviour in insects and primates; courtship (Drosophila, 3-spine stickleback and birds).
  3. Orientation, navigation, homing; biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.
  4. Methods of studying animal behaviour.

III. Economic Zoology :

  1. Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
  2. Major infectious and communicable diseases (small pox, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
  3. Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogens (helminths) and vectors (ticks, mites,Tabanus, Stomoxys)
  4. Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella), oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).

IV. Biostatistics :
Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student t-test, F-test (one-way & two-way F-test).
V. Instrumental methods :

  1. Spectrophotometry, flame photometry, Geiger-Muller counter, scintiliation counting.
  2. Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).

Paper-II
Section-A
I. Cell Biology :

  1. Structure and function of cell andits organelles(nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and Iysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movement.
  2. Watson-Crick model of DNA, replication of DNA, protein synthesis, transcription and transcription factors.

II. Genetics

  1. Gene structure and functions; genetic code.
  2. Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Drosophilla, nematodes and man.
  3. Mendel’s laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, linkage-maps, multiple alleles, cistron concept; genetics of blood groups.
  4. Mutations and mutagenesis : radiation and chemical.
  5. Cloning technology, plasmids and cosmids as vectors, transgenics, transposons, DNA sequence cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
  6. Regulation and gene expression in pro-and eu-karyotes.
  7. Signal transduction; pedigree-analysis; congenital diseases in man.
  8. Human genome mapping; DNA finger-printing.

III. Evolution

  1. Origin of life
  2. Natural selection, role of mutation in evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation, speciation.
  3. Fossils and fossilization; evolution of horse, elephant and man.
  4. Hardy-Weinberg Law, causes of change in gene frequency.
  5. Continental drift and distribution of animals.

IV. Systematics

  1. Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics.

Section-B
I. Biochemistry

  1. Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, lipids, proteins, aminoacids, nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fattyacids, cholesterol.
  2. Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and release, ATP, cyclic AMP-its structure and role.
  3. Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.
  4. Enzymes : types and mechanisms of action; immunoglobulin and immunity; vitamins and co-enzymes.
  5. Bioenergetics.

II Physiology (with special refernece ot mammals)

  1. Composition and constitutents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man; coagulation, factors and mechanism of coagulation; acid-base balance, thermo regulation.
  2. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport; haemoglobin : constitutents and role in regulation.
  3. Nutritive requirements; role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion and absorption.
  4. Excretory products; nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation.
  5. Types of muscles, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles.
  6. Neuron, nerve impulse-its conduction and synaptic transmission; neurotransmitters.
  7. Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
  8. Mechanism of hormone action.
  9. Physiology of reproduction, role of hormones and phermones.

III. Developmental Biology

  1. Differentiation from gamete to neurula stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia, induction, morphogenesis and morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and chick; organogenesis of eye and heart, placenation in mammals.
  2. Role of cytoplasm in and genetic control of development; cell lineage; causation of metamorphosis in frog and insects; paedogenesia and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell death; ageing; blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
  3. Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
  4. Baer’s law; evo-devo concept.

 

Latest News

get in touch with the best IAS Coaching in Lucknow