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Daily Current Affairs – 2020

Topic: For Prelims and Mains

Hindi 3rd Most Spoken Language

28th Aug 2020

Why in News ?

The International Mother Language Day is celebrated on  February 21 . It has been observed since 1999 to promote “linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism”, according to the UN.

  • UNESCO declared International Mother Language Day in 1999, to commemorate a 1952 protest against West Pakistan’s imposition of Urdu as the official language of East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh).
  • Of the world’s 6,000 languages, 43% are estimated as endangered, according to the UN.
  • On the other hand, just 10 languages account for as many as 4.8 billion speakers — over 60% of the world population.

 Facts

  • Globally, English remains the most widely spoken language with 1.13 billion speakers in 2019, followed by Mandarin with 1.17 billion.
  • Hindi is third with 615 million speakers while Bengali is seventh with 265 million.
  • In India, Hindi is the most spoken language with over 528 million speakers in 2011, as per the Census.
  • Bengali had 97.2 million speakers in 2011, followed by Marathi (83 million), while other languages with over 50 million speakers are Telugu (81 million), Tamil (69 million), Gujarati (55.5 million) and Urdu (50.8 million).
  • Percentage trends from 1991 to 2011 underline the growth of the most widely spoken language, Hindi, which was spoken by 39.29% of the Indian population in 1991, and whose share grew to 43.63% in 2011.
  • For other languages in India’s top 12, the 2011 percentage share has fallen when compared to that in 1991.

Why February 21?

  • UNESCO declared International Mother Language Day in 1999, to commemorate a 1952 protest against West Pakistan’s imposition of Urdu as the official language of East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh).
  • Police opened fire on demonstrating Dhaka University students and “some people were killed”.
  • When thousands thronged the university the next day, police fired again, killing more people.
  • In Bangladesh, since 1953, February 21 is observed as Ekushe Day, after the Bengali word for twenty-one.

Parivara & Taliwara Tribes

 Topic: For Prelims and Mains

Why in News?

The Lok Sabha has recently passed The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2019.

About the Bill •

The Bill seeks to include the Parivara and the Talawara communities in the ST category.

  • The Siddi tribes of Belagavi and Dharwad would also be included in the category apart from those living in the Uttar Kannada districts.

About Siddi Tribe • These tribes of Karnataka are believed to have descended from the Bantu people of Southeast Africa who were treated as slaves by Portuguese merchants.

  • They are predominantly found in the states of the western coast of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka states.
  • They are primarily Muslims although some are Hindus and others belong to the Catholic Church and are included in the list of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups.

About Parivara and Taliwara Tribes: Pariwara and Taliwara will be part of the Nayaka tribe in the list of Scheduled Tribes of Karnataka. They are socially, politically, economically and educationally backwards communities.

 

Lucknow Declaration

Why in News?

India and 50 African countries adopted the ‘Lucknow Declaration’ at first India – Africa Defence Minister’s Conclave.

  • The Conclave was held on the sidelines of the ongoing DefExpo 2020(5th to 9th February, 2020) in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).

Highlights of the Declaration

Peace and Security

All the signatories committed to continue their collaboration in the fields of peace and security including conflict prevention, resolution, management and peace building.

  • It also aims to enhance the role of women in peacekeeping.

 

 Maritime Security

To exchange expertise and trainers, strengthening regional and continental early warning capacities and mechanisms.

Terrorism

  • Terrorism is a major threat in the region and thus aims to take resolute action in rooting out terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, eliminating financing channels and halting cross-border movement of terrorists.
  • It also urges the international community to envisage the adoption of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorismin the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).

Importance of Indo-Pacific:

To encourage enhanced cooperation between India and Africa on the evolving concept of Indo-Pacific.

India’s SAGAR:

It also welcomes the African Unions’ vision for peace and security in Africa that coincides with India’s vision of SAGAR (Security and Growth for all in the Region).

SAGAR is an articulation of India’s vision for the Indian Ocean.

  • SAGAR has elements such as enhancement of capacities to safeguard land and maritime territories & interests; deepening economic and security cooperation in the littoral; action to deal with natural disasters and maritime threats like piracy, terrorism.

 Compliance at UNSC:

To strengthenth the UN Counter-Terrorism mechanisms and to ensure strict compliance with the the UN Security Council sanctions regime on terrorism.

Origin and Status of Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT)

  • India has pushed for an intergovernmental convention to enhance prosecution and extradition of terrorists since 1996.
  • Although consensus eludes towards the adoption of the terrorism convention, discussions have yielded three separate protocols that aim to tackle terrorism:
    • International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, adopted on 15 December 1997;
    • International Convention for the Suppression of theFinancing of Terrorism, adopted on 9 December 1999;
    • International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, adopted on 13 April 2005.

 

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