Daily Current Affairs – 2020
Topic: For Prelims and Mains
Global Social Mobility Index
Why in news?
India ranks 7th lowest on countries providing equal opportunity to all.
What is Social Mobility?
- Social Mobility is the upward or downward movement of an individual in personal circumstances in relation to their parents.
- It can be measured against a number of outcomes ranging from health to educational achievement and income.
About the Index:
Released by: World Economic Forum(WEF)
- The index measures parameters required for creating equal opportunity for all.
- According to the report, Denmark ranks the first followed by Finland.
- The five economies with the most to gain from boosting social mobility are China, the United States, India, Japan and Germany.
Countries’ social mobility was measured based on following five key dimensions distributed over 10 pillars –
- Health; education (access, quality and equity)
- Technology; work (opportunities, wages, conditions)
- Protections and institutions (social protection and inclusive institutions)
- India has ranked 76th place out of 82 countries on Social Mobility Index.
- It ranks 41st in lifelong learning and 53rd in working conditions.
- The Areas of improvement for India include social protection (76th) and fair wage distribution (79th).
Note – Among the world’s large emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the most socially mobile of the BRICS grouping, ranking 39th.
Global Social Mobility Index
Why in news?
The birth rate in China has fallen to the lowest in 70 years.
- Birth rate in 2019 was at 10.48 per 1,000, the lowest since 1949.
- The number of babies born in 2019 fell by over 580,000 to 14.65 million.
- This fall in birth rate can be largely attributed to China’s one-child policy, which came into force in 1979 under then leader Deng Xiaoping.
Why One Child Policy was adopted by China?
- It was adopted out of the Malthusian fears that unchecked population growth would lead to economic and environmental catastrophe.
- It was also a response to concerns about food shortages.
What is Malthusian theory all about?
Thomas Robert Malthus was the first economist to propose a systematic theory of population.
- He articulated his views regarding population in his famous book, Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), for which he collected empirical data to support his thesis.
- He argued that if left unchecked, a population will outgrow its resources, leading to a host of problems.
Was the Policy Effective?
In essence, it did bring down the population by 400 million, according to Chinese officials.
- But, it failed to spark a baby boom. When the announcement was made, 11 million couples were eligible to have a second child. As such, officials were expecting around two million births in 2014.
- That figure never came into fruition as only 700,000 couples applied for the new dispensation and only 620,000 were given a permit. In other words, China is facing a huge demographic issue in the next years to come.
- They have a rapidly aging population where a quarter will be over 60 by 2030.
What’s good about One Child Policy?
- Helps to ease the over population problems.
- It is seen as practical by some families.
- Lowers the poverty rate.
Why it isn’t a good idea?
- The enforcement is unequal.
- It is a human rights violation.
- Shrinking work population.
- Gender imbalance due to the strong cultural preference of boys for labor and work.
- Increase in abortions and female infanticide.
- Extra babies end up being illegal and never becoming a citizen, due to fines.
- Intrudes on people’s personal values and opinions.
Why such policies are not suitable for India?
- The implications of such a policy being enforced in India would surely have been more disastrous than it did in China.
- India is way behind China in basic development indicators like life expectancy, IMR and maternal mortality rate. The preference of a male child, the regional disparities in development, and the growing intolerance against minorities in the present milieu would be further magnified with the state entering homes and enforcing such strict norms.
- The fact that women are at the receiving end of such policies in a patriarchal society is another story in itself. The burden of limiting family size falls on the woman, and most often female sterilisations are promoted rather than giving the couple the choice of contraception.
- Limiting family size cannot be an end in itself at the neglect of basic needs and services like food security, housing, education, and health.
Fact For Prelims
Naga and Kuki Tribes Signs For Truce :
- The umbrella organisations of Naga and Kuki tribes namely, Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) and the Kuki National Organisation (KNO) have signed a declaration to settle contentious issues and inter-community differences peacefully.
- Following ethnic clashes between the Nagas and Kukis in the early 1990s, a number of Kuki outfits were formed as a means to counter Naga hegemony and assertion.
- The conflict between the Nagas and the Kukis in 1993 had claimed more than 230 lives and displaced 1,00,000, mostly Kukis.
- The Nagas are not a single tribe, but an ethnic community that comprises several tribes who live in the state of Nagaland and its neighbourhood.
- Nagas belong to Indo-Mongoloid Family.
- Nagas claimed sovereignty on the basis of prior sovereign existence and differences, which is today expressed in terms of “uniqueness”.
- There are nineteen major Naga tribes, namely, Aos, Angamis, Changs, Chakesang, Kabuis, Kacharis, Khain-Mangas, Konyaks, Kukis, Lothas (Lothas), Maos, Mikirs, Phoms, Rengmas, Sangtams, Semas, Tankhuls, Yamchumgar and Zeeliang.
Kuki Tribe :
- Kuki tribe is majorly found in Manipur with other states of North Eastern India.
- ‘Mim Kut’ is the main festival of the Kuki tribe.
- The Chin-Kuki group consists of Gangte, Hmar, Paite, Thadou, Vaiphei, Zou, Aimol, Chiru, Koireng, Kom, Anal, Chothe, Lamgang, Koirao, Thangal, Moyon and Monsang.
- The term Chin is used for the people in the neighboring Chin state of Myanmar whereas Chins are called Kukis in the Indian side. Other groups like Paite, Zou, Gangte, and Vaiphei identify themselves as Zomi and have distanced themselves from the name, Kuki.