African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are highly contagious viral diseases that affect pigs. They are clinically similar, and cannot be definitively distinguished from each other in the field. Laboratory testing is required to confirm a diagnosis.
Although the diseases appear similar, they are caused by completely unrelated viruses.
It is often known as ‘hog cholera’ and is caused by a virus from the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family.
The agent causing CSF is a small, positive single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus.
It is closely related to the virus that causes bovine viral diarrhoea (mucosal disease) in cattle and border disease (hairy shaker disease) in sheep.
The virus belongs to the Asfivirus genus of the Asfarviridae family.
The ASF virus (ASFV) is a large enveloped double-stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) virus and the only DNA arbovirus (arthropod borne) known so far.
It is caused by a virus that is unrelated to the classical swine fever virus and has a more complex genetic structure.
ASF as well as CSF are viral diseases affecting pigs exclusively
Both ASF and CSF affect pigs only, and do not infect humans and other livestock.
The virus is spread from infected or carrier pigs via discharges from the nose, mouth, urine and faeces or infected semen and it is highly contagious.
The virus survives in frozen carcasses for long periods of time.
Facts for Prelims:
Bug Bounty programme:
The government has launched a “Bug Bounty” programme, under which financial rewards will be given to security researchers for finding any vulnerability in the application or suggesting improvements to the source code.
With the release of the source code in the public domain, the government is looking to expand collaboration and leverage the expertise of top technical brains to collectively build a robust and secure technology solution to help support the work of frontline health workers in fighting this pandemic together.
This is believed to improve transparency on how the data is used, improve security by minimizing bugs and empower experts to improve the app via public contributions.
The “Bug Bounty” programme will be open to Indian and foreign nationals, but only Indians will be eligible for rewards offered under the scheme.
A new species of small freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae has been discovered. It was encountered in a small waterbody in Velankanni, Tamil Nadu.
The silver-hued fish has been named Puntius sanctus.
Puntius sanctus grows only to a length of 7 cm.
It is used both as food and as an aquarium draw.
They are purely freshwater fishes.
Its physical characteristics include a protractible mouth, a pair of maxillary barbels (a sensory organ near the snout), 24-25 lateral line scales and 10 pre-dorsal scales.