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9th Jan. 2020 Answer writing

(General Studies I)

  1. Q. In the early decades of the 20th century, reform movement as a whole not only became revivalist but also a national mass based movement. Explain (150 words)

Model Answer:

Reform is a gradual process. From the beginning of 18th century the ‘Indian Renaissance’ started with Raja Ram Mohan Roy as its prime architect.

He focused on reforming the social & religious practices like sati Pratha, rituals, polytheism, woman education & early marriages etc.

Further as the time evolved, Brahama Samaj, Arya Samaj , Prathana Samaj tried focusing on various issues. The sati was abolished in 1929; the widow remarriage act came in 1956. The various revivalist reformers interpreted the holy books, Vedas, Upanishad in a humanist way.

They gave the principles of oneness of God, Brotherhood & monotheism. After 1885 leaders started following the revivalist policies which they merged to mobilize man participation & create nationalist ideas.

Tilak started Ganesh festival, ask people to take pride in one own culture & demanded swaraj on that basis.

Vivekananda never gave the political message but enriched people with ideas to take pride in past, faith in our culture & confidence in future. Aurobindo was the perhaps first person to say that India should have complete political freedom.

While these ideas appeared extremist to moderates at that time but perhaps the new generation had realized the principles of equality, liberty & freedom, which they became aware of.

Thus, the concept of nationalism was instilled in people through reforms. The revivalism of one’s past & culture formed the very basis for the mass movement of people in national movement at the call of their leaders.

Date- 06/01/2020                                                                                                                                 (Dept. of Content Development)


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