View Blog +91 9415011892/93

History as an Optional Subject

UPSC/UPPSC (CSE)

History Syllabus

HISTORY PAPER I

  1. Sources : Archaeological sources : Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments. Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
  2. Pre-history and Proto-history : Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
  3. Indus Valley Civilization : Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
  4. Megalithic Cultures : Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
  5. Aryans and Vedic Period : Expansions of Aryans in India : Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
  6. Period of Mahajanapadas : Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.
  7. Mauryan Empire : Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.
  8. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) : Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
  9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
  10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
  11. Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
  12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
  13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
    1. Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs.
    2. The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.
    3. Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
    4. Trade and commerce.
    5. Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.
    6. Condition of women. — Indian science and technology.
  14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
    1. Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa.
    2. Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism.
    3. Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India.
    4. Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.
  15. The Thirteenth Century:
    1. Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success.
    2. Economic, Social and cultural consequences.
    3. Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
    4. Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.
  16. The Fourteenth Century:
    1. “The Khalji Revolution”.
    2. Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.
    3. Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
    4. Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.
  17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
    1. Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
    2. Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
    3. Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.
  18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:
    • Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.
    • Malwa, Bahmanids.
    • The Vijayanagara Empire.
    • Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun.
    • The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.
    • Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.
  19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture:
    • Regional cultures specificities.
    • Literary traditions. — Provincial architectural.
    • Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
  20. Akbar:
    • Conquests and consolidation of empire.
    • Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.
    • Rajput policy.
    • Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
      • Court patronage of art and technology.
  21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
    • Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
    • The Empire and the Zamindars.
    • Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
    • Nature of the Mughal State.
    • Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.
    • The Ahom kingdom.
    • Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
  22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:
    • Population Agricultural and craft production.
    • Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution.
    • Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems.
    • Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.
    • Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.
  23. Culture during Mughal Empire:
    • Persian histories and other literature.
    • Hindi and religious literatures.
    • Mughal architecture.
    • Mughal painting.
    • Provincial architecture and painting.
    • Classical music.
    • Science and technology.
  24. The Eighteenth Century:
    • Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
    • The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
    • Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
    • The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
    • Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.
    • State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.

 

PAPER-II

  1. European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
  1. British Expansion in India: Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; TheMarathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
  1. Early Structure of the British Raj: The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.
  1. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
  •  Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
  • Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.
  1. Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.
  1. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:  Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
  1. Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
  1. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
  1. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
  2. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.
  3. Other strands in the National Movement. The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
  4. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
  5. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
  6. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
  7. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.
  8. Enlightenment and Modern ideas: (i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau. (ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies. (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
  9. Origins of Modern Politics : (i) European States System. (ii) American Revolution and the Constitution. (iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815. (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery. (v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
  10. Industrialization : (i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society. (ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany, Russia, Japan. (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
  11. Nation-State System : (i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century. (ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy. (iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.
  12. Imperialism and Colonialism : (i) South and South-East Asia. (ii) Latin America and South Africa. (iii) Australia. (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
  13. Revolution and Counter-Revolution : (i) 19th Century European revolutions. (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921. (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany. (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.
  14. World Wars : (i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal implications. (ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences. (iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences.
  15. The World after World War II: (i) Emergence of Two power blocs. (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment. (iii) UNO and the global disputes.
  16. Liberation from Colonial Rule : (i) Latin America-Bolivar. (ii) Arab World-Egypt. (iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy. (iv)South- East Asia-Vietnam.
  1. Decolonization and Underdevelopment : (i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.
  2. Unification of Europe : (i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community. (ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community (iii) European Union.
  3. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World : (i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991. (ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001. (iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower

 

get in touch with the best IAS Coaching in Lucknow